By: avletters | December 17, 2017

To quantify earthquake, usually three prospects are considered, namley, Amplitude, Frequency Content and Duration. All of these parameters must be taken into consideration while describing the ground motion as without the other, complete study of earthquake is impossible. In the attached file, the author has used software, Seismo Singal, in finding out the ground motion parameters of Kobe Earthquake (1995), Japan and corresponding parameters are described.

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By: avletters | December 11, 2017

Nepal nearly after about 83 yrs got struck again with an earthquake of high magnitude that is able to destroy normally built residential RCC houses. The earthquake on 25 April, 2015, with magnitude of 7.8 is considered to be the worst earthquake since 1932, when it was hit with 8.2 earthquake which killed 10,000 to 12,000 people. The epicenter of the earthquake was less than 80.4 km (50 miles) northwest of Kathmandu, the country’s capital. According to USGS, the source of the earthquake is relatively shallow, about 8.22km (5.13 miles) in depth.

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By: avletters | August 08, 2017

Nepal is an earthquake and disaster prone country. Landslides, epidemics, fire hazards triggered by earthquake causes considerable losses of human lives and property. The main reason behind the earthquake in Nepal is the Indian plate colliding with the Eurasian plate. The movement is continuously occurring at the rate of 4-5 cm per year and the only way to release this energy is through the earthquakes. The upward climb of Everest and its sister mountains is accompanied by numerous tremors. Moreover, the remnants of a prehistoric lake, a 300 meter-deep layer of black clay, lies underneath the Kathmandu Valley. This augments the damage caused by severe earthquakes.

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By: avletters | August 07, 2017

Nepal lies on the boundary of two massive tectonic plates – the Indo-Australian and Eurasian Plates. It is the collision of these plates that created Himalayas and the earthquakes with them. The Indian tectonic plate is continuously pushing the Eurasian plate with about a rate of about 4-5 cm per year. This rate is considered to be quite high, considering the size of the plates of earth’s crust involved. On analogy, with the human body, this is twice the speed with which human fingernails grows.

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By: avletters | October 31, 2016

Nepal’s geography ranges from a plain land to high mountains and difficulty exposed by the fragile geology of Nepal specially in mountain area further amplifies hardships for maintenance and new construction as well. Dadeldhura, covers an area of 1538 square kilometre within latitude 28º 59’’ N to 29º 26” N and Longitude 80º 12” E to 80 º 47” E. The district lies partly in the Terai and partly in the Mid-Hills with elevation ranging from 333 m to 2639 m above mean sea level (msl).

According to DoLIDAR-National Plan for Rural Road Maintenance, 2056, rural roads has been defined as “A motorable road or an agricultural road or a motorable track owned, regulated and maintained by the local governing institutions. These roads may have either e...

Category: Road 

Tags: Maintenance 

By: avletters | September 24, 2016

Under the provision of Nepal Engineering Council (NEC) Act, 2055 and the NEC Regulation 2057(2000), professional code of conduct has been published, stating on 8 major points:

    1.Discipline and honesty: profession to be conducted in a disciplined manner

   2.Politeness and Confidentiality: dealing customers politely and maintaining their             confidentiality unless provoked by the concerned authority as per the existing law

    3.Non-discrimination: no discrimination against customer on grounds of religion, race,             sex, caste or any other things

  4.Professional work: provide suggestion and recommendation in their field of             knowledge or skill

   5.Deeds which may cause harm to the engineering profession:...

Category: Ethics 

Tags: Ethics, Code, Engineer 

By: avletters | August 10, 2016

The following note is prepared based on EIA national guidelines 1993 and Environment Protection Rules 1997 of Nepal.

Human activities have induced depletion of natural resources. Moreover, degradation of environment due to many development projects have attracted growing interest in the last few decades. To address the negative consequence of development action on environment, Nepal government has established EIA system with the formulation of Environment Protection Rules 1997 as well as sectoral policy, laws and guidelines. EIA has been developed as a tool for systematic identification and evaluation of the impacts on the environment caused by proposed project.

The government of Nepal enacted the Environment Protection Act (EPA) 1997 and t...

By: avletters | July 26, 2016

There is no doubt in the issue that the climate is changing. The magnitude or extent of climate change is projected by different scientific models. The average of many models predict that at higher emission scenario the temperature of the earth is going to raise by 4 degree Celsius above pre-industrial level by 2100 AD which would have a threat to the existence of  humanity. Also at lower emission scenario the temperature is projected to rise to about 2 degree Celsius. The rise in temperature of the earth should be limited to 2 degree Celsius.  According to IPCC to achieve this aim there should be cut in global emission by 50% by 2050 compared to 1990. For this the developed countries like US, European Union and also the emerging economies ...